What is Artificial Intelligence (AI)? | Its types, applications, and much more.

Ningsamma Thebe

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artificial intelligence

Artificial Intelligence is a creation of technology that enables machines/ gadgets like computers, and mobiles to function and respond in a human-like manner. It includes the ability of machines to think in a human-like way whether it is problem-solving, decision-making, or processing a language. In the year 1956, a conference was held at the Dartmouth College for Computer Scientists where they discussed the possible ability of machines to function in a human-like manner. This conference is considered to be the birth of Artificial Intelligence and an American Scientist, John McCarthy became the first person to coin the term ‘Artificial Intelligence ’.

In today’s world, Artificial Intelligence has acted as a boon for human beings. Especially in the field of business and healthcare AI has been playing an important role in such sectors since it has made the work of data analysis easier and more convenient by giving and making insight that humans might miss. In the healthcare sector, the use of Artificial Intelligence has enhanced the work by giving more personalized treatments, and diagnoses for a comparatively cheaper amount. Artificial Intelligence is developed to make our everyday lives less challenging and make the world a better and more advanced place to live in. Devices with artificial intelligence help to make our work faster and easier. That is why the popularity of artificial intelligence is on the rise since it makes work easier in not only all work-related sectors but also in our personal lives.

Types of Artificial Intelligence

Based on the types of approaches they use and what data they work with, Artificial Intelligence is differentiated into the following types.

Machine Learning

Machine Learning helps the computer to enhance its performance by helping it recognize the patterns and relationships in the data. Through this, the main goal of machine learning is to improve the ability of computers to upgrade their performance on a specific task over time.

Deep Learning

Deep learning is a type of machine learning for analyzing and processing a large amount of data using artificial neural networks. Like its name ‘deep learning’, this type of artificial intelligence processes data that are systematically complex and sophisticated. It can completely change how we engage with technology and is used in a variety of applications, such as self-driving cars and virtual assistants.

Natural Language Processing

Natural Language Processing is a type of Artificial Intelligence that enables computers or smartphones to understand and process human language. It involves analyzing and processing natural language input, such as text or speech, using algorithms and statistical models to carry out a wide range of tasks. It is widely used in the field of healthcare, finance, education, and others.

Computer Vision:

Computer Vision is another field of artificial intelligence that enables the computer to recognize, process, and analyze images, videos, or any digital visual inputs so that the devices can make recommendations based on that. It also has a wide range of applications in many fields such as healthcare, business, and education for image, video recognition, face or fingerprint recognition, medical image analysis, and a few others.

Applications of Artificial Intelligence

Since Artificial Intelligence has made each of our lives easier and more convenient, it is used in a wide range of fields.

Healthcare

Artificial Intelligence is used in the field of healthcare for easy detection of diseases and diagnosis. Specialized artificial intelligence is used in the machines used in the healthcare sector and can also help to create personalized medicines to create treatment plans.

Agriculture

The use of artificial intelligence has helped the agriculture sector by detecting the quality of soil and identifying what types of nutrients are lacking in the soil which is done using computer vision and machine learning applications. Machines with AI bots help in the faster harvest of crops than human workers.

Education

By creating personalized learning plans for students to help them progress in learning through flashcards, and study guides which have all been possible using AI. The access to online platforms for lectures, and meeting with professors without the need for physical presence is also another feature of AI that has made the lives of students and teachers easier.

Finance

Artificial Intelligence is being used in the finance sector to improve decision-making, automate tasks, and reduce costs. Additionally, it helps the finance sector with fraud detection, risk assessment, trading, customer service, and others.

Gaming

Another field where AI is immensely popular is the gaming world. In video games, AI is used to make intelligent opponents and non-player characters (NPCs). It allows players to customize the characters according to their needs. In some cases, it even provides the feature of face recognition and makes the characters look exactly like the real-life version of the player.

 Future of Artificial Intelligence

Since Artificial Intelligence is so popular and useful in today’s modern world, the future of AI seems to be growing and improving continuously. The future might bring innovations and experiences we could have never imagined. If the field of AI continues to improve in the same way, it will make the lives of human beings faster and easier than before. At the same time, the possible loss of jobs due to automation, the ethical consequences of utilizing AI in decision-making processes, and the requirement to ensure that AI is developed and used responsibly and transparently are some of the worries regarding the influence of AI on society.

After witnessing and experiencing such changes that are brought by AI, there seems to be no looking back. The field of AI is continuing to pave its way forward. All industries including the business, health sector, finance, and transportation are expected to widely adopt AI since machine learning and data analyzing algorithms are expected to improve significantly so that better results and decision-making ability. Along with the advantages that Artificial Intelligence has to offer several opportunities are presented to it. The first is, improved decision-making since AI helps to improve the decision-making capacity of human beings with better predictions and data analysis. AI can automate any repetitive tasks and also improve customer experience along with enhanced security facilities in the field of finance, business, healthcare, and transportation.

 Challenges and Obstacles of AI

Job displacement

The growth and popularity of AI have created fear among people regarding their jobs being replaced since AI is equally capable of doing the same task in a human-like manner. Artificial Intelligence can replace some repetitive jobs yet at the same time it also opens opportunities for new jobs.

Security Risks

AI systems also have high threats to their security. The system, no matter how complex, is always vulnerable to threats and attacks. The attacker may manipulate the data input which could lead to the systems giving wrong outputs and may cause harm to human life and the organization. The system might contain personal data, and hackers may hack such personal data to extract information from the system. Sometimes fake videos, news, and information can also be built from AI which can mislead humans and lead them to make the wrong decisions.

Bias and Ethics

Another concern of AI is bias and ethics. If the data input is biased, the AI system also becomes biased generating output that is also biased which can fuel up the already existing discrimination and inequality that exists in society. Therefore, it is essential to have diverse data sets and to take ethical concerns into account while designing the AI system.

Increased dependency on human beings

As artificial intelligence continues to impact the lives of human beings to make it easier, more convenient, and faster, in the same way, the dependency of human beings on AI is growing. Whether its decision making or workforce automation, the reliability that human beings have on AI is increasing only. Human beings are also relying on AI for their everyday work like setting reminders or doing homework.

Impact of AI on Society

In recent years, gadgets like smartphones, computers, and tablets have had a tremendous impact on society. We are growing dependent on such technologies whether it’s for work, entertainment, or education.  Businesses that have been able to incorporate AI into their work have gained ample advantages, but at the same time, several jobs are being replaced due to the advanced features of AI systems. The creation of Chatbots like Chat GPT is there for the assistance of work and to help humans create better outcomes. AI helps in overall economic development as it assists businesses to improve efficiency, and productivity, creating more innovative business ideas. The impact of AI on a country can also be determined by the investment it has made or has been making in the field of artificial intelligence. The leading countries in technology such as the USA and China have heavily invested in the development and creation of new AI technology can be taken as an example.

As AI is taking over the world and becoming more advanced humans must be careful about its legal and regulatory issues. One of the most important things that are to be considered is data privacy since a large amount of data collection and processing happens in the AI system so there must be clear regulations on how the data is collected, stored and processed as the concern of data privacy is raising. Another legal and regulatory issue of AI is liability. Since AI systems are capable of decision-making on their own but who are to be considered liable if any harm is caused? To establish liability and guarantee that those responsible are held accountable, precise legal frameworks are required.

Career in AI

Artificial Intelligence is a blooming sector that is not only for the field of work that is taking advantage of it, but it is also a booming sector for professionals who are working in the field of Artificial Intelligence or for the ones who are interested in pursuing a career in the field of AI. The following are the jobs in the field of artificial intelligence.

AI Research Scientist

AI Research Scientists work on developing new AI algorithms. They work on research projects and to make the technology industry more advanced. To become an AI Research scientist, one must have a PhD degree in the field of computer science or related fields such as mathematics, and statistics. They also require a strong knowledge of machine learning, deep learning, and programming knowledge to excel in this job. The average salary of an AI Research Scientist is expected to be $150,000 per year.

AI Product Manager

The job of the AI Product Manager is to oversee the AI-based products that are to be launched and evaluate their business impact. They need to know about Machine learning and Artificial Intelligence to deepen their understanding of customers along with good communication. A bachelor’s degree in Computer Science or a related field is required. The expected average salary can be $140,000 to $183,000 annually depending on the experience.

Data Scientist

Data Scientists are professionals who work with raw data, analyze them, provide insights and transform the raw data into valuable and useful information. To become a data scientist, one requires to have strong programming skills, and knowledge of machine learning, mathematics, and statistics. Typically, a master’s degree in Data Science, Computer Science, or Mathematics is required. The average salary for a Data Scientist is around $120,00 per year. 

AI in Nepal and around the globe

Nepal as a country is slowly but gradually moving towards advancement in the field of AI. Like the rest of the world, the popularity of AI in Nepal is also on the rise. The use of Artificial Intelligence in Nepal is not the most advanced version but most industries in Nepal is going digital. For example, E-banking for the transaction of money through one click on our smartphones or booking an appointment with the doctor in the hospital with the help of the hospital’s mobile app which can be accessed easily by the patients. Some restaurants like Naulo restaurant in Nepal have robots as waiters, as well as SBI bank, which uses such technology for face recognition of their account holders. Some tech-based companies in Nepal are working on the development of AI-based systems.  The universities in Nepal have also started offering degrees at the bachelor’s and master’s levels for AI. In Nepal, the field of artificial intelligence is rapidly expanding, and a variety of businesses, universities, and government programs are aiming to promote the study, development, and use of AI technologies.

AI is being used across the world in many ways. For example, US companies such as Amazon, Google, and Microsoft are working rigorously to develop new AI technologies to develop creative solutions that can help businesses and governments make better decisions, increase efficiency, and improve customer experiences. Similarly, in China and other European countries, many companies have started to develop AI solutions for healthcare, business, education, and other industries. Overall, artificial intelligence (AI) is a global phenomenon that is revolutionizing how we work, live, and interact with our surroundings. We should expect to see many more innovative and exciting AI applications in the coming years as AI technology progresses.

 Conclusion

Artificial Intelligence since its development has helped human lives in numerous ways and is continuing to make our lives more convenient. This article contains information that is helpful to know about AI at the surface level and to know what the future of AI looks like. The benefits of AI are evident, with increased efficiency, improved accuracy, and better decision-making, resulting in a better customer experience. Despite its drawbacks, AI continues to make our everyday lives convenient and easier. As AI continues to advance and create better decision-making abilities for assisting human beings, most industries will likely adopt the use of AI systems in future. Not only in the business or healthcare sector but if utilized properly AI will also help to solve environmental problems such as global warming and pollution by giving correct insight into how wastes should be managed, how energy should be optimized and natural resources should be managed. We must be careful about the negative impacts of AI and only utilize it for good purposes. The development is artificial intelligence is crucial for the future and we must focus on utilizing artificial intelligence for the overall benefit of our society. Therefore, we must approach it wisely, with an emphasis on its ethics and regulation.

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